Types of Cancer
Cancer of any type occurs when mutated cells in a region of the body form and begin overtaking healthy cells. Oncologists typically classify cancer according to which organ or body region it has attacked. Click on the links below to learn more about the types of cancer.
Bladder cancer is the result of uncontrolled growth of cells in the tissue of the bladder, a small hollow organ in the pelvis region responsible for receiving and storing urine.
Breast cancer occurs when normal cells in the breast begin to grow out of control and result in a cancerous tumor(s). According to the American Cancer Society, about 1 in 8 women will develop a form of breast cancer in their lifetime.
Cervical cancer occurs in a woman’s cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects it to the vagina. Regular Pap smears and HPV (human papillomavirus) testing helps detect this form of cancer early on.
As the third most common cancer in the United States, colon and rectal cancer, together known as colorectal cancer, occurs when cancer cells form in the cells of the colon, rectum or both.
This type of cancer develops in the lining of a woman’s uterus (the endometrium) and most often affects women over the age of 55.
Also known as renal cancer, kidney cancer is the result of cells mutating in one or both of the kidneys. Kidney cancer is much more common in older people and, according to the American Cancer Society, the average age of diagnosis is 64.
A rare form of cancer, leukemia develops in cells found in bone marrow, which is responsible for creating blood. Leukemia discourages the body from fighting off infections.
Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and stems from tissues of the lungs. Smoking greatly increases the chances of being diagnosed with lung cancer.
Melanoma cancer begins in the skin’s melanocyte cells (responsible for pigmentation) and is a dangerous form of skin cancer. Overexposure to the sun causes melanoma, which is indicated by marks on the skin and is highly treatable when detected early.
Cancer that begins in the lymphatic system is known as Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The lymphatic system is part of the immune system that attacks infection and consists of lymph nodes found throughout the body.
Mutated cells that initiate in the ovaries, the two organs responsible for producing a woman’s eggs, lead to ovarian cancer. Oncologists typically do not diagnose this rare form of cancer until later stages, because there are few symptoms. Women don’t start showing signs until the cancer has spread and is harder to treat.
Pancreatic cancer starts in the pancreas, a small organ positioned in the lower portion of the stomach. A rare form of cancer, pancreatic cancer presents no symptoms in the early stages and later stage symptoms might include loss of appetitive and weight.
Prostate cancer develops in the prostate, a small gland that helps create the semen that nourishes and carries sperm. Prostate cancer is common, especially among older men, and can be screened for with a PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test.
The thyroid gland at the bottom of the neck stores and produces hormones that help nearly every gland in the body function properly, as well as regulating metabolic rates and energy levels. Thyroid cancer is highly treatable.